Weight Loss Tea: The Benefits Of Chinese Herbs

Enjoyment of a hot cup of tea and health benefits bundled into one bag is weight loss tea. Weight loss tea is one of the most appreciated health products on the market today. It contains an anti-oxidant called EGCG that is supposed to increase the body metabolism by up to 4%, act as an appetite suppressant and delays deposits of fat from developing in your body.

In particular tea helps to prevent cancers and slow down the development of certain de-generative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. It is also helpful in case of weak memory and other ailments such as itching and swelling. Another very interesting quality of tea is that it is believed to make you heart rather arteries stronger and aids to keep a glow on your face and make you look younger. So that means consuming weight loss tea will not only make you slimmer, but will also clear your skin, boost energy and will give your face a healthy, radiant and clear glow.

Tea is a 100% organic product which has its roots lying in the thousands of years old Chinese medicinal practices. It is extracted by the process of isolating powerful anti-oxidants using water or steam followed by condensation and drying. The extract thus obtained is usually in the powder form and sometimes also used in fat burning and diet pills. One more functional attribute of tea is to keep your body hydrated which makes you crave less for beverages.

Weight loss tea, sometimes also referred as green tea is specifically aimed at acting as a diuretic and aids elimination of bodily waste products. Whereas green tea is like black tea and contains caffeine which may or may not promote weight loss depending on the strength of the tea. Since it’s super concentrated, it’s entirely possible to consume a hundred cups of tea a day using green tea extract. Some research indicates this would completely negate any positive effects and may even be harmful.

In fact there are several types of weight loss tea and green tea could be one of those. All teas come from the same plant (Camellia sinensis), and can be grouped into four main types: white tea, green tea, Oolong tea, and black tea. Tea type is determined by its oxidation method. The more oxidization a tea undergoes during processing, the darker it becomes. Heavily oxidized tea is very dark with more flavors and more caffeine. Green tea is not oxidized. This means it has less aroma and caffeine, but it retains much more of its powerful nutrients and antioxidants.

Green tea and weight loss:

One of the more exciting and well known benefits of green tea is its ability to aid in weight loss. Along with giving you an extra energy boost, green tea stimulates the metabolism while simultaneously blocking fat absorption. In 2006, a study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that tea is a healthier choice than almost any beverage including water.

Pu-erh and Oolong teas for weight loss:

Oolong teas should be brewed around 90 to 100 C (194 to 212 F), and the brewing vessel should be warmed before pouring in the water. Yixing purple clay teapots are the traditional brewing-vessel for oolong tea. For best results use spring water, as the minerals in spring water tend to bring out more flavors in the tea. High quality oolong can be brewed multiple times from the same leaves, and unlike green tea it improves with reuse. It is common to brew the same leaves three to five times, the third steeping usually being the best.

Pu-erh tea is also called Pu’er tea. Pu-erh teas require boiling water for infusion. Some prefer to quickly rinse pu-erh for several seconds with boiling water to remove tea dust which accumulates from the aging process, then infuse it at the boiling point (100C or 212F), and allow it to steep from 30 seconds to five minutes.

Black tea for weight loss:

In the West, water for black tea is usually added near boiling point 99 C. Many of the active substances in black tea do not develop at temperatures lower than 90C. Lower temperatures are used for some more delicate teas. The temperature will have as large an effect on the final flavor as the type of tea used. The most common fault when making black tea is to use water at too low a temperature. Since boiling point drops with increasing altitude, it is difficult to brew black tea properly in mountainous areas. It is also recommended that the teapot be warmed before preparing tea, easily done by adding a small amount of boiling water to the pot, swirling briefly, before discarding. In the West, black teas are usually brewed for about 4 minutes and are usually not allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or more than about five minutes. In many regions of the world, however, boiling water is used and the tea is often stewed. For example, in India black tea is often boiled for fifteen minutes or longer as a strong brew. The popular varieties of black (red) tea include Assam tea, Nepal tea, Darjeeling tea, Nilgiri tea, Turkish tea and Ceylon tea.

Herbal tea for weight loss:

The term herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs containing no actual tea, such as rosehip tea or chamomile tea. Alternative terms for this are tisane or herbal infusion, both bearing an implied contrast with tea.

Apart from this classification you can also distinguish the weight loss tea by their flavors or the content of polyphenols and EGCG in them. Polyphenols block formation of non-melanoma skin cancer.

Researchers have also proved the following benefits of consuming tea:


Researchers at the University of Illinois in Chicago found that polyphenols in Green tea inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause bad breath. These antibacterial properties also help the teeth and gums. In fact, a Japanese University found that regular consumption of tea strengthened participant’s teeth and helped to prevent tooth decay.


Along with fighting the signs of aging, green tea also helps with less obvious forms of aging as well. A Japanese University study found that drinking more than 2 cups of green tea per day slashed the odds of cognitive impairment in elderly patients by 64%.


Study results reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that polyphenol antioxidants in green tea benefits suffers of arthritis by reducing the incidence and severity of the disease. EGCG protects cartilage destruction and reduces joint swelling and pain. This leads many scientists and health professionals to recommend green tea as a legitimate remedy for treating arthritis.


Catechins, the antioxidant polyphenol compounds, have been shown to have a major impact in your immune system. Research conducted by the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 2003 revealed that thiamine, found in green tea, boosted the activity of the gamma delta T cells that form part of our adaptive and innate immunity. The study followed a group of coffee drinkers and a group of tea drinkers who each drank 600ml of their drink daily. Blood samples taken four weeks later quite clearly showed that production of these anti-bacterial proteins were five times higher in those drinking tea.

So Yes! Weight loss tea can help boost your metabolism, but green tea alone cannot help you lose weight. You should follow a weight regulating diet plan also to make sure you get that desired shape and look that you always wanted to have!

Protecting Ocean Regions With Robotics


With the ever-aging global population and the growing burden of chronic illness, there is an increased reliance on the healthcare system (particularly the biopharmaceutical industry) in order or one to achieve and sustain a high quality of life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the burden of human diseases have been rapidly increasing for decades with this trend predominantly contributed by population growth and environmental degradation.


Marine bioprospecting is the search for novel compounds from natural sources in the marine environment. These activities have increased a great deal in the last few years likely in part due to the continued technological advances enabling further oceanic exploration, acknowledgement of the rich generic diversity in the marine biome, as well as the pressure from industry to produce given various blockbuster drugs going off patent. Today, about 18,000 natural products have been reported from marine organisms belonging to about 4,800 named species. The number of natural products from marine species is growing at a rate of 4% per year. The increase in the rate of discoveries is largely the result of technological advances in exploring the ocean and the genetic diversity it contains. Advances in technologies for observing and sampling the deep ocean, such as submersibles and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), have opened up previously unexplored areas to scientific research. Since 1999, the number of patents of genetic material from marine species has increased at the rate of 12% per year. Marine species are about twice as likely to yield at least one gene in a patent than their terrestrial counterparts. Bioprospecting typically requires the collection of a very limited amount of biomass for the initial discovery. Although further collections may be required after a promising discovery has been made, bioprospecting generally does not involve threats to biodiversity comparable to the large biomass removals involved in harvesting resources for food or mineral exploitation.


Biopharmaceuticals are one of the most impressive achievements of modern science. Many biopharmaceuticals offer high efficacy and few side effects. And there is much more to come: radically new concepts are making it to the market, and the advances keep coming at a rapid pace. The success of natural compounds in drug discovery is unparalleled: for antimicrobial and anticancer therapies, for example, more than 70% of new chemical entities introduced during the period 1981-2002 originated from natural products. It has been estimated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) that 1% of samples from marine animals tested in the laboratory reveal anti-tumor potential (which compares favorably with just 0.01% of samples of terrestrial origin). In the last few decades, advances in informatics, automation and imaging technology have made it possible to screen 100,000s – 1,000,000s of small molecules against a specific biological target or cellular assay per day, compared with 10s-100s of compounds tested on animals over many months previously. Growing awareness of the limitations of historically valuable approaches, and breakthroughs in robotics technologies, such as those used in separation and structure determination, have made screening mixtures of structurally complex natural product molecules easier, and have expanded the potential role of natural chemical diversity in the drug discovery process



Australia is one of only 17 mega-diverse countries in the world and is renowned for the uniqueness of its biota. Australia has several features proving attractive to investors and researchers in the natural products area. This includes, not least, access to a diverse and unique biota. More generally, the features of Australia conducive to research and commercial activity include its robust system of law and stable democratic system of government, its stable and resilient economy, transparent and efficient regulatory environment, comprehensive intellectual property protections and high scientific and technological capacity. Australia has remained relatively isolated over time compared to most countries. Consequently, Australia has a high proportion of endemic species – that is, species not occurring naturally elsewhere. For example, in the case of mammals, approximately 83% are endemic to Australia. Australia’s unique marine environment contains the world’s largest areas and highest diversity of tropical and temperate seagrass species and of mangrove species; some of the largest areas of coral reefs; exceptional levels of biodiversity for a wide range of marine invertebrates; and it is estimated that around 80% of the southern marine species occur nowhere else in the world. With only 0.3% of the world’s population, Australia contributes 2.5% of the world’s medical research and 2.9% of global scientific publications (Invest Australia, 2007, p.6). In 2005, Australia ranked eighth in the OECD in terms of the proportion of researchers in the total labor force. This is above the OECD average. On a per capita basis, Australia has a research output twice the OECD average. In terms of biotechnology research, Australia has several dedicated biotechnology research institutes. Australia’s biotechnology industry is steadily growing, with activity across biotechnology fields including biomedicine, agricultural biotechnology, industrial biotechnology and environmental biotechnology. The Australian Government is a staunch advocate of the domestic pharmaceutical industry and has been very supportive in implementing initiatives to grow this sector. By any measure, Australian Government support for research and development in the biopharmaceutical industry has been and looks to continue to be strong.


Today, biopharmaceuticals generate global revenues of $163 billion, making up about 20 percent of the pharma market. It’s by far the fastest-growing part of the industry: biopharma’s current annual growth rate of more than 8 percent is double that of conventional pharma, and growth is expected to continue at that rate for the foreseeable future. Marine bioprospecting has the potential to further drive these trends. The marine biome remains untapped and under investigated, and thus, perfectly poised to drive both topline and bottom line for multiple stakeholders in the biopharma value chain. Investing in biotech R&D has yielded better returns than the pharma-industry average. The current biologics-development pipeline supports an outlook of continued healthy growth. The number of biotech patents applied for every year has been growing at 25 percent annually since 1995. There are currently more than 1,500 biomolecules undergoing clinical trials, and the success rate for biologics has so far been over twice that of small-molecule products, with 13 percent of biopharma products that enter the Phase I trial stage going on to launch. To date, sampling of marine products has primarily occurred in easy-to-reach coastal waters. As a result, 97% of natural products of marine origin are from eukaryotic sources (organisms with complex cells), with sponges alone accounting for 38% of the products. However, the majority of the Earth’s metabolic diversity resides in prokaryotic organisms (single-celled organisms such as bacteria) and over 99% of the microbial community of the ocean remains to be explored, so it stands to reason that many more genetic sequences valuable for products are yet to be discovered. There is a particular interest in marine species that live in extreme environments, such as hydrothermal vents and seamounts (‘extremophiles’). By the end of 2007, only 10 compounds had been reported from Deep Ocean and ocean trench environments, with a further seven identified in 2010. Fewer than 10 marine natural products have so far been reported from hot vent bacteria. Furthermore, if we break down the various ecosystems of our seas and oceans and compare the chemical dynamics, coral reefs have particularly impressive potential. The corals that we see are actually made up of colonies that build up and thrive in an environment where nutrients are low. Although coral reefs only occupy 0.1% of the world’s ocean surface, they are one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth, hosting ~25% of all marine species. The focus on the coral reef ecosystem as a target place for medicinal purposes is not a new concept. As early as the 14th century, coral reefs were a known source for medicines. One practice at that time is the use of fish gall bladder to treat venomous stings from marine organisms. Today, coral reefs have already contributed its name in the pharmaceutical industry as one of the source of biochemical compounds for new drugs and the possibilities are endless. The opportunity moving forward is substantial.


2.3.1 Aplidin

One of the early biochemical compounds derived from the sea is Didemnin, a compound isolated for the treatment of certain cancers. This compound was obtained from the tunicate Trididemnum solidum. Unfortunately, Didemin did not survive in later stages of its clinical trials. However, after a series of further exploration, a relative of the former species was discovered to poses similar traits. The tunicate Aplidium albicans possesses the compound Aplidin® which has a similar structure with Didemnin but far less toxic. Aplidin is an anti-tumor, anti-viral and immunosuppressive drug that has been demonstrated to be effective in pancreatic, stomach, bladder and prostate cancers. After undergoing series of clinical test, Aplidin was granted the classification as an orphan drug that specifically treats multiple myeloma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the United States alone, there are over 45,000 people with multiple myeloma and an estimated 15,000 new cases in the U.S. each year.

2.3.2 Yondelis

Yondelis® was developed by the PharmaMar Pharmaceutical Company and was released in the market in 2003. This compound is now sold by Zeltia and Johnson and Johnson. Yondelis contains the active substance Trabectedin. Trabectedin is derived from coral reefs. Specifically from the filter feeding sacs of the small and immobile plant-like invertebrate called sea squirts. Extracts of this reef associated species has been found to contain a treatment for soft-tissue sarcoma and ovarian neoplasm sarcoma. Yondelis was developed as a result of the National Cancer Institute Screening Program for marine plants and animals. Sea quirts were collected from reefs of West Indies and studied in the laboratory at the University of Illinois. The anti-cancer biosynthetic compound was then discovered to be embedded in the symbiotic microorganism within the sea squirts. Yondelis is produced in a semi-synthetic manner, after the extracts from the sea squirts undergo a patented chemical process. This process is less intrusive and less demanding to the natural marine biome. Moreover, even though the usage of Yondelis is only for rare medical conditions such as sarcoma, there is still potential for this product to add a lot of value to the lives of patients and other stakeholders. More and more adopting Yondelis in their prescribing workflow for sarcomas and there are an increasing number of patients who are sensitive to medicines containing platinum and Yondelis is one of the only alternative anti-cancer medicines.

2.3.3 Pro Osteon

There are many indications for a bone graft implant (e.g. fusion of the spine, joints in arms and legs, fractures or gaps in bones caused by trauma or infection, oral surgery). In a typical bone grafting procedure, a synthetic material is shaped by the surgeon to fit the affected area of the bone while pins or screws are used to hold it in place. This material builds a support structure where bone cells can interlace, regenerate and heal. Pro Osteon Implant 500 has a porous microstructure where new tissues and blood cells can grow, thereby stimulating growth and connects fractured bone segments. Generically called “Bone Void Filler” and approved by the FDA in 1992, Pro Osteon Implant 500 is clinically proven to be safe, strong and cost effective. This material is sterile, thereby minimizing adverse reactions from the patient’s immune system rejecting the implant. The effectiveness of Pro Osteon Implant 500 lies in its source. It uses corals from the sea that has the same porous interconnected structure of a typical bone graft thereby mimicking the internal structure of a human bone. After undergoing a patented chemical process, it converts the coral into hydroxyapatite which is a mineral and the chief structural element of a human bone. At this stage, the implant material is now also osteoconductive which facilitates bone cells to weave into the porous structure. After the procedure and the healing process starts, the Pro Osteon Implant will eventually be covered and replaced by bones creating the mended part as strong as it was before. Pro Osteon has great demonstrated efficacy and a safe side-effect profile. The company manufacturing this product is projecting at least $3 billion in sales by 2017. What’s more, the production of Pro Osteon is not completely dependent on farming and extracting corals from their natural habitat. Special techniques have been developed, which require only a small portion of coral to be extracted, while the balance is grown artificially in the lab-thus promoting sustainability and stability of the marine biome.



Despite the fact that marine bioprospecting is relatively unimposing and the practice does not impose the sustainability risk of various terrestrial techniques, conservationists and the public still have some concerns. For one, very little is known about the conservation status of many species used as sources of marine genetic resources. Further, many species occur in vulnerable and fragile ecosystems. Many are also concerned with what we don’t know in this relatively nascent sub-industry at this point. For instance, the effect on ecosystems of removal of marine genetic resources is poorly understood.


Investment in marine biotechnology is not without risk. Sampling at sea costs a minimum of US$ 30,000 per day or US$ 1 million for a month. It typically takes 15 years overall, and an investment of up to US$ 1billion, to go from research to commercial product, due to the fact that many products fail to deliver on early promises. As a result the field is dominated by relatively few nations. Patent claims associated with marine genetic resources (MGR) originate from only 31 countries. Ninety per cent of these patents originate from 10 countries (USA, Germany, Japan, France, UK, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland and Norway), with 70% originating from the US, Germany and Japan. Despite the high levels of investment required in R&D, biotechnology is a lucrative and important industry.


The potential of marine bioprospecting has become the subject of international policy debate (particularly for areas beyond national jurisdiction). One central question is whether the potential benefits from marine bioprospecting ought to be shared by the entire international community or only by the States or individual corporations with the capacity to exploit them. Various groups are looking at this in order to configure the most sensible set of policies to balance the need to promote innovation and technological/biopharmaceutical advances, with the need to make sure all stakeholders in the value chain are appropriately compensated, along with the need to ensure the longevity of these natural marine habitats. Increasingly, individual nation-states are establishing policies that dictate the way in which protected marine habitats in their jurisdiction may be used for bioprospecting and other scientific and commercial pursuits.


There are operational and technological challenges to bioprospecting and biopharmaceutical discovery in general. Reproducing large molecules reliably at an industrial scale requires manufacturing capabilities of a previously unknown sophistication. Consider this: a molecule of aspirin consists of 21 atoms. A biopharmaceutical molecule might contain anything from 2,000 to 25,000 atoms (Exhibit 1). The “machines” that produce recombinant therapeutics are genetically modified living cells that must be frozen for storage, thawed without damage, and made to thrive in the unusual environment of a reaction vessel. The necessary sophistication comes at great cost. Large-scale biotech-manufacturing facilities require $200 million to $500 million or more to build, compared with similar-scale small-molecule facilities that may cost just $30 million to $100 million, and they can take four to five years to build. As the number of products rises and new process technologies such as continuous manufacturing are introduced, the complexity of biopharma operations and the biopharma supply chain will increase.

The Past and The Present of Missouri

Missouri is a state which is located in mid western part of United States of America and is bordered by Iowa, Kentucky, Illinois, Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Nebraska and Kansas. As far as population is concerned, Missouri comes at the eighteenth position among fifty states in the United States of America. Missouri truly represents a fusion of urban and rural culture when it comes to the demographic, economic and political make up of the nation. St Louis, Kansas City, Springfield and Columbia are four major urban centers of the state with St. Louis being called as the “western-most Eastern City” and Kansas City being called the “eastern-most Western city”.

The reason behind this is that Missouri is a transition state between the Eastern and the Western states of United States of America. The state is named after Missouri river which is one of the most important rivers flowing in the state which has a varied geography. The drug treatment Missouri river flowing from west to east connects the two largest metropolitan areas of the state, Kansas City and St Louis whereas another important river of the state,Mississippi defines the eastern boundary of the state.

According to Koppen Climate Classification, Missouri has a continental climate with a slight bend towards humidity where the winters are cold and summers are hot and humid. Since there is no high mountain or ocean in the vicinity to keep the temperature in moderation, the climate is influenced by the bitter cold wind from the Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. Archaeologists and anthropologists have traced the human habitation in the region before 1000 BCE along the river banks.

The first settlers who settled in this region were of French Canadian ethnic group who settled at a place which is an hour away from the south of St Louis. In due course of time, St Louis became a major center of fur trade in the country as many Native American tribes settled along the rivers Missouri and Mississippi. Missouri also developed as a major agricultural center of the region in the days of yore as there was a surplus production of wheat,tobacco and corn which was then traded to other regions.

However as time passed by, with prosperity there have been a rise in crime too. One of the biggest challenges of the United States of America in the present day is to tackle with problems of drug abuse.

Overdose of drugs not only affects the state of health of an individual but on a broader perspective, it becomes a social issue of colossal importance. Those who are staying in the region of Missouri and want to get the their loved one get rid of the problem of drug addiction and alcohol abuse can search for online directory of rehabilitation centers just by typing drug treatment Missouri or long term drug rehab in Missouri in the search bar of Google. Missouri also has a number of detoxification centres in addition to rehabilitation centres.

Professional and Trustworthy in-Home Caregivers for Your Love One

Taking care of elderly parents or other relatives at home can be difficult. More so if they have a disease that is continuously progressing. If the situation is getting more and more difficult for you to handle, and is affecting the quality of your life, maybe, hiring an in home caregiver is just what you need. There are actually a lot of agencies, individuals, caregivers and nurses who can help and provide the kind of service that suits your need. However, finding the right person to help you takes a lot of consideration.

caregivers of Arizona

Hiring home caregivers is a popular option, explored by many families every year. Some communities have become aware of the increased need for in-house care and have started developing volunteer services, drop in centers as well as help-lines which people can use to seek advice, suggestions and guidance. However, when it comes to hiring in-home caregivers, it can be difficult to know who to hire and where to find the services needed for your family.

Most of us are going to have to deal with this with aging parents or ourselves; what to do about deteriorating health of elderly family members. Some may even be experiencing more advanced forms of senility that require dementia care of Alzheimer’s care. When this situation occurs, find the right way to treat it is essential.

There are a few things you will want to keep in mind when going through this process. For one, if you are selecting a caregiver for an older relative, you will want them to be involved. Having the person receiving the care being a part of the selection process is an essential part of this-even if they suffer from dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Having their input in these latter instances is important so that you can remind them that they were in fact part of the decision making team. This will validate their caregiver for them in many instances.

You may also need to make a list of what the person receiving care’s needs are and in what areas the caregiver will be helping them in. Not all caregivers have the same list of duties, so this will help you to narrow down your list. Another thing to consider is how long these tasks will take to accomplish. For example, if your elderly loved one only needs help with making meals and bathing, the caregiver can visit for only two hours or so per day. But if their needs are more intensive, you might require more time with a caregiver. It’s best to start out with an extra hour or two than you think that will be needed so that you will not have anything go without being completed. You can always scale back the hours later on.

Another consideration is your loved one’s privacy needs. This is especially the case for people who are functioning at a higher level. Nobody really every wants to be dependent on someone else if they don’t need to, so establishing your loved one’s privacy needs is extremely important. If you think your family member fits into this category, try and give them as much freedom as possible with their in home caregiver and limit hours to only the absolutely necessary amount of time that will be needed.

If you are trying to find professional and trustworthy in-home caregivers of Arizona for your love one that needs special health, I highly recommend you to review the Care from the Heart. They provide in-Home care service in Arizona. Arizona in-home caregivers are going to take good care of your parents and their special needs will give you piece of mind.

All in all, you will want to establish a line of communications. If you cannot find a caregiver that you feel you can talk to and trust on your first try, just keep looking. This is a quickly growing field of employment and as a result, there are a lot of caregivers out there. This is beneficial to you because it allows you more freedom of choice when it comes time to pick the perfect caregiver for your family. If you can’t find a good in home caregiver, it might be worthwhile to discuss assisted living with your elderly loved one. These two types of care cost about the same per year and both offer a good degree of freedom for your loved one.

Vital Facts On Marriage Records

As ordered by the laws of the State, all vital public files of Illinois are stored at the State’s Department of Public Health, Division of Vital Records. Its archives accommodate different files, including births, deaths, divorces, and Illinois Marriage Records. A specified amount of fee for each file copy has to be paid to the same office via money orders, certified checks or personal checks.

In this State, all requests for accounts pertaining to anyone’s marriage must be forwarded to the County Clerk in the county where the concerned couple were married. Additionally, copies of the same information can also be gathered through the Illinois Regional Archives Depository. An index of marriages that occurred from 1763 to 1900 can also be acquired for free at a government-owned search site online.

By definition, marriage is known as a legally recognized relationship. It is established by a civil or religious ceremony between two people who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners. The act of marrying normally establishes certain legal obligations between both parties, extending to some family members of the concerned couple. Often viewed as a contract, a nuptial is normally recognized by the state, a religious authority, or both.

Searching for documents that relate this kind of event is just one important way for you to initiate a background check on someone. If you think your partner is not being truthful to you, then this is a good source of information to justify your doubts. It is also beneficial to support any genealogical and historical researches. Furthermore, adopted children, who are looking for their biological parents, can also make use of this document.

In the advent of time, every piece of information you need is now accessible over the Internet already. That means that so long as you have an online computer and a little know-how about browsing the Web, getting answers to your questions will be just a few clicks away. Two major classifications of search sites online are free and fee-based. Picking the latter is highly recommended, though, since it ensures first-rate service for a low-cost only.

It seems that most people now opt to search for Marriage And Divorce Records online than through the traditional methods with those government offices. One of the reasons for that is because it is doable wherever you are provided there’s Internet connection. Undoubtedly, online services offer convenience, privacy, plus a kind of report that is done with much accuracy and immediacy.

Paid or free Illinois Marriage Records [http://www.states-marriage-records.com/illinois-marriage-records/]? We have the information and insight to help you pick the right Marriage Records [http://www.states-marriage-records.com/].

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Adam_Young/376680

Tubal Reversal Insurance Coverage

A tubal reversal or tubal ligation is a procedure that surgically corrects and reconstructs the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system for purpose of conceiving. The procedure is performed by a credentialed surgeon who is considered an accomplished specialist in his or her field with proficiency to restore functional capacity of fertility. There are basically three standard operations utilized in the medical community to accomplish this reconstruction which are displayed prominently in media including implantation, anastomosis, and a salpingostomy. All variations of correcting the problem are operationally invasive, inherent in risk, relatively expensive, and elective thus not usually covered under normal circumstance by health insurance, or is it?

Why Is Tubal Reversal Usually Or Normally Not Covered By Insurance?

A medically underwritten plan for an individual would require an exclusionary benefit period for a prolonged duration of time while reinvesting the monthly premium at regular intervals to earn sufficient return on invested capital hence funding the operation. The median average claim expenditure for Tubal Reversal Ligation surgery can run anywhere from $4,500.00 to $10,000.00 depending on several factors such as history of female complications, age, height, or weight and with just one person to pool this risk the cost of covering exceeds the insurers return on investment by a wide margin. The second reason is the fact that very speculative complications can occur during the course of operating such as excessive bleeding, infection, anesthetic casualty, damage to nearby organs, and risk of ectopic pregnancy all which would only exacerbate the claim cost expenditures and cause negative asymmetries in the medical loss ratio costing a fortune for the insurance company.

Exceptions To The Rule.

Group insurance benefits are unsurpassed in the arena of coverage and most often commercial insurance carriers write experienced rated policies instead of medically underwritten benefits to cover these procedures which are offset by factoring the premiums of the business enterprise as a whole. Simply put, with many employees paying monthly premiums there is financial leverage to provide this as a covered expense. Some states are required by federal mandated law to honor payment for Tubal Reversal Ligation if they do in fact cover maternity regardless of the provisions stipulated within its contractual arrangements with the insured. As a matter of fact, The National Infertility Association has addressed them by state including Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Texas. The caveat is there are certain loopholes in regards to evading or meeting such requirements such as not all carriers being required to offer maternity related coverage’s.

Applying for Tubal Reversal Insurance.

Our company Health Insurance Buyer will assist you in locating such coverage from carriers like Blue Cross Blue Shield, Humana, and Aetna to name a few insurance companies as well as help you locate reputable providers that perform the aforementioned services such as Chapel Hill Tubal Reversal Center, Center for Fertility and Gynecology, or Atchafalaya Obstetrics and Gynecology as an example. Once our health insurance agency has identified a carrier for you in your respective geographical area which provides coverage for these special infertility treatments and helps you apply for these benefits, there are some steps you need to take. We will need to make sure you request and obtain your operative notes and pathology report from the original physician or hospital where the sterilization was performed validated by date of service. Also needed are birth date, current address, height, weight, and maiden name along with any other names or information that may have been used at the time. Recent evaluation for testing of Pap smear, Cervical Culture, Blood Count, and Obstetrical Panel will have to be up to date for clearance. Last but not least, upon remitted claim submittal special attention has to be made to make sure the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) diagnosis code for bilateral tubal occlusion is billed as 628.2 and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedure code for tubal anastomosis is billed accordingly as 58750 for maximum allowable reimbursement.

We Can Help

If you are considering Tubal Reversal Ligation and need answers to your questions we can definitely help both in regards to providing many resources as well as finding affordable health insurance coverage to assist you. If you need more help on the subject please visit our website at http://www.health-insurance-buyer.com and leave your contact information and one of our licensed agents will attend to all of your needs to accomplish this task.

Carlos Diez is a senior benefits consultant for Health Insurance Buyer a referral service that refers consumers to the insurance carriers that can best fit their wants and needs. He holds life, health, and annuity licenses in 48 states and is appointed with over 88 carriers. For contact information please reach him at http://www.health-insurance-buyer.com

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Carlos_Diez/624269

Mental Illness in the Prison System

Should the mentally ill be placed in the mainstream population of a prison?

Chances are you’ve never given much – if any – thought to this question. A paranoid schizophrenic kills someone because the voices in his head tell him that person is an alien trying to steal his brain. Is that schizophrenic safe in a prison? Are the other prisoners safe with him (or her) there?

A person suffering with severe bipolar disorder shoplifts an armload of clothing during an attack of acute mania. He or she is sent to prison, to co-exist with gangbangers, rapists, and murderers. Or, perhaps worse, to live in a solitary cell with no human interaction, for 23 out of 24 hours each day. The acute mania shifts to severe depression. What are the chances he or she will survive the prison term?

According to the U.S. Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics, in 1998 approximately 300,000 inmates had some form of mental illness. A decade later, that number rose to 1.25 million.

The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) states that 16 percent of the prison population can be classified as severely mentally ill. This means that they fit the psychiatric classification for illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. However, the percentage skyrockets to as high as 50 percent when altered to include other mental illnesses, such as anti-social personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Two major causes attribute to the rise of mentally ill inmates:
“Deinstitutionalization” – the process of closing down mental hospitals throughout the country. This began in the 1950s but gained strong momentum in the 1980s.

In the 1950s, the U.S. had 600,000 state run hospital beds for those suffering from any form of mental illness. Because of deinstitutionalization and the subsequent cutting of state and federal funding, the U.S. now has just 40,000 beds for the mentally ill. The inability to get proper treatment left this segment of our population vulnerable and, consequently, many of them now land in prisons.

The second issue is the tougher sentencing laws implemented in the 1980s and 1990s. This is particularly true with the advent and pursuit of our “War on Drugs”. People with mental illness use and abuse drugs at a higher rate than the general population. They are also more likely to get caught, arrested, and imprisoned.

Deinstitutionalization hasn’t worked. All this has managed to do is to shift the mentally ill from hospitals to prisons – one institution to another. We have made it a crime to be mentally ill.

The largest psychiatric facility in the U.S. isn’t a hospital; it’s a prison. At any given time, Rikers Island in New York City houses an estimated 3,000 mentally ill prisoners. The average inmate population at Rikers Island is 14,000. One out of every 4 to 5 inmates at this prison suffer from mental illness.

Florida judge Steven Leifman, who chairs the Mental Health Committee for the Eleventh Judicial Circuit, states that, “The sad irony is we did not deinstitutionalize, we have reinstitutionalized-from horrible state mental hospitals to horrible state jails. We don’t even provide treatment for the mentally ill in jail. We’re just warehousing them.”

What happens to the mentally ill in an overcrowded, violent prison system with little to no psychological counseling available?

In state prisons, the mentally ill serve an average of 15 months longer than the average inmate. The very nature of most mental illnesses makes it difficult to follow prison rules. These inmates are more likely to be involved in prison fights and they tend to accumulate more conduct violations.

Prison staff often punishes mentally ill inmates for being disruptive, refusing to comply with orders, and even for attempting suicide. In other words, these inmates are punished for exhibiting the symptoms of their illness.

Gaining parole is also more difficult for the mentally ill. Their disciplinary records are often spotty, they may have no family willing or able to help, and community services are usually inadequate.

In October 2003, Human Rights Watch released a report entitled Ill Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness. Following two years of in-depth research, this organization found that few prisons have adequate mental health care services. Furthermore, it found that the prison environment is dangerous and debilitating for the mentally ill.

An excerpt from Ill Equipped:

“Security staff typically view mentally ill prisoners as difficult and disruptive, and place them in barren high-security solitary confinement units. The lack of human interaction and the limited mental stimulus of twenty-four-hour-a-day life in small, sometimes windowless segregation cells, coupled with the absence of adequate mental health services, dramatically aggravates the suffering of the mentally ill. Some deteriorate so severely that they must be removed to hospitals for acute psychiatric care. But after being stabilized, they are then returned to the same segregation conditions where the cycle of decompensation begins again. The penal network is thus not only serving as a warehouse for the mentally ill, but, by relying on extremely restrictive housing for mentally ill prisoners, it is acting as an incubator for worse illness and psychiatric breakdowns.”

According to Fred Osher, M.D., director of the Center for Behavioral Health, Justice and Public Policy at the University of Maryland, the majority of mentally ill inmates are arrested for misdemeanors and crimes of survival. He states, “That’s a whole host of folks who land in the criminal justice system because of their behavioral disorders.”

Those on the fringe of society are primarily affected. These people are almost always impoverished and disabled by their illness. They have nowhere to turn, no one to help them, and so we toss them in prison. Even minor offenses keep them locked in prisons, since many cannot afford and/or do not know how to bond themselves out.

The recidivism rate among the mentally ill is higher than that among the general prison population. Prison has become a revolving door system for dealing with mental illness. By default, prisons have become the new mental hospitals. However, they lack the funding and the training to deal with these patient-inmates.

Ratan Bhavnani, executive director of the Ventura County chapter of the National Alliance on Mental Illness, states that, “In general, people with mental illness can recover when given the appropriate treatment rather than to be sent off to jail only to become more psychotic and come back and reoffend.”

Michael Jung of Ventura, California suffers from bipolar and hears voices telling him that he is the devil. Over the past 10 years, Jung has been arrested a minimum of 15 times – all for relatively minor offenses. Earlier this year, Jung spent six weeks confined in G Quad, the unit where mentally ill inmates stay in their cells 23 out of the 24 hours in each day.

Cells such as those in G Quad are referred to as the “rubber rooms” because the walls are padded. There is no furniture in these rooms. The “toilet” is a grate in the floor. They are stripped naked and monitored via video camera. Inmates who are paranoid, delusional, or otherwise difficult to manage are often placed in this type of cell, whether for their own protection, the safety of the other inmates, or just plain convenience.

Susan Abril, a former inmate who suffers from bipolar disorder, was placed in this type of cell. During her confinement, Abril began hearing voices for the first time. “I didn’t sleep,” she said. “I mentally went insane being locked down 23 hours of 24.”

We are essentially making the mentally ill inmates sicker, as well as ensuring their return to an already massively overcrowded prison system. Obviously our current system is not working. We cannot expect prison staff to function as psychiatrists. We also cannot expect the mentally ill to be “rehabilitated” in a mainstream prison system.

The Taxpayer Action Board for Governor Pat Quinn of Illinois cited annual savings in the tens of millions of dollars that could be gained by releasing thousands of non-violent offenders, closely monitoring them and providing substance abuse treatment, mental health counseling, education, job training, and employment opportunities.

For the most part, the mentally ill do not belong in prison. It would be cheaper (and smarter) for us as taxpayers to divert funding in order to provide adequate treatment programs to keep them out of prison.

Darcia Helle is a published author of mystery/suspense fiction. An avid reader and writer, Darcia immerses herself in all things crime.

Go to http://www.QuietFuryBooks.com to learn more about Darcia and to read her free monthly nonfiction newsletter Guilty As Charged.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Darcia_Helle/318056

Brush Clearing Workout Program

Since my mother’s death, my 92-year-old father Erwin Thompson has taken on clearing brush on our 100-acre place, Evergreen Heights, in a major way. This project is in addition to completing several new novels, calling square-dances, and hosting a weekly musical open house.

Since I grew up in the era of the Jane Fonda workout, a breakthrough for mature women, I’ve been teasing my father that his brush-clearing project is his workout program. Unfortunately, his workout probably doesn’t have the same commercial potential as Jane’s because not that many folks have a 100-acre parcel to workout on.

Still, the principles behind what he’s doing and why he’s doing it, and the enormous benefits we’ve seen in his health in the last year hold promise. His heart, lungs, voice, outlook, and sleep have all improved since he’s been dedicating himself to the Brush-Clearing Workout Program.

Janet: Pop, how long have you been clearing brush?

Erwin: Since I was big enough to hold an axe I guess.

Janet: What was it that called to you to begin clearing brush in the wide-scale way you have been in the last year or so?

Erwin: I got tired of it reaching out to swipe us off the tractor as we mowed the field.

Janet: You also had a memory of what the place looked like when you were a boy, and a vision of what you hoped it would look like again if you applied yourself with concerted effort.

Erwin: Yes. It will never look like it did when I was a boy.

My Grandfather Riehl had three steady hired men. The tillable soil was all tilled. The rougher ground was planted in chestnut trees which were grafted varieties that my grandfather had produced; first by cross pollination and then by grafting the wood of the promising seedlings onto other unproved seedlings. These he had planted on the hills that were too steep and rough to farm. To keep the weeds down he pastured sheep on this area.

Janet: Tell us why the brush is there is the first place. Since you are the professor of brush-ology, give us the basics.

Erwin:There are two kinds of land classification, and then of course all of the shades in between. The residents of the good, flat, all-tillable lands in central Illinois are living in The Prairie The other end of the scale is The Forest.

The folks on The Prairie do not have much of a brush problem. They farm right up to the fence rows and in many cases there are no fences.There is no ready source of seeds for the brush growth, as the farmers are almost in a world by themselves.

Ideally, what you want in The Forest is fine, big trees. These big trees discourage the growth of brush by their tall shaded environment with a thick mat of pine needles accrued from the passing years. This discourages the growth of brush.

Between these base points, there is what is called The Edge. This is where we are. The seeds of the brush are carried by the birds, the wind, the rains which wash the seeds on down the hills and along the banks of the streams.

The railroads used to clean out their box cars and throw the leavings along the right of way out here in the country where they figured nobody would even notice. We did. That is how wild oats came into our part of the country. This is an ornery weed that is totally worthless and very persistent in re-seeding itself.

The thing that is really bad about the brush along the edge of the fields is that the trees reach out for the light of the field, and grow in that direction. Often they are so low that they hit the operator when mowing the field unless they just layout another ten feet, and this of course takes that much away from the open ground and adds to the underbrush.

Janet: How do you cut brush?

Erwin: In older times there was just one way, and that was a good sharp axe. Today, to at least partially offset some of the disadvantages that we have inherited in what some people call “progress,” we have the chain saw. I also use the pruning shears that my aunt and uncle used in their grafting work. Between these two great tools I can handle anything that has appeared in front of me so far.

The major trouble comes when the vines wrap around the larger trees. Sometimes the tops become so inter-twined that the tree will not fall even after it is cut.

Two possible solutions in addition to just leaving it hang and hope that it will fall some day. Sometimes on the smaller ones I make a cut about four feet above the ground level, and this will drop the tree trunk four feet nearer the ground. Sometimes it works.The safer way is to hook the tractor onto the mess and keep pulling until it comes apart.

So we have the brush on the ground. I have a big flat bed trailer for my tractor. We load the brush on the trailer and take it to a burning pile. It takes work. I have a neighbor who is built like Paul Bunyan’s ox. I call him my “pet elephant.” I have another neighbor who lives near the burning pile. He keeps it burned.

That is how I do it. I recommend brush clearing for health and mental health. There is a firm satisfaction in seeing the erstwhile messy edge of the field become once more looking like a field.

Visit Janet Grace Riehl’s blog “Riehl Life: Village Wisdom for the 21st Century” at http://www.riehlife.com for more thoughts and information about making connections through the arts, across cultures, generations, and within the family. You can also read sample poems and other background information from “Sightlines: A Poet’s Diary” on Janet’s website.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Janet_Grace_Riehl/95871

Choice of Business Entity – S Corporation or LLC?

As an attorney concentrating in business organization, I take a central role advising my business clients on the appropriate entity to form. Most of my clients approach me already armed with the knowledge that an organized business entity will generally shield them from personal liability for the acts or omissions of the business. However, relations between multiple owners, tax considerations and treatment of assets are just a few of the factors that will dictate which choice of entity is truly suitable for your business. By and large, there is no uniform “right” choice. A careful review of the details, strategies and goals of each business needs to be made before the proper entity is chosen.

Corporations and limited liability companies (LLC’s) are the most commonly utilized business entities. Since most small to medium sized businesses are better structured as either a corporation or LLC, this article highlights some basic similarities and differences between these entities. I have attempted to provide an overview of these key elements below. But, keep in mind that the information below, by itself, will not allow you to make a proper, informed choice of entity. This should always be done with the coordinated assistance of your attorney and accountant.

C corporation

Most large companies are C corporations. All publicly traded corporations are C corporations. The “C” designation comes from Subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code, which governs corporate taxation. There are a variety of reasons C corporations are more aptly suited to large businesses. Multiple classes of stock, unlimited number of and types of shareholders, a fiscal year vs. calendar tax year and retention of corporate earnings are just a few of the key differences of a C corporation. Generally, this structure is desirable for businesses who seek to raise capital publicly or whose class of investors vary.

Most importantly, C corporations are subject to double taxation. This means that all of the income of the C corporation is taxed once at the corporate level, then those same revenues are taxed again at the shareholder level when profits are distributed via dividends. In smaller C corporations, the double tax can sometimes be avoided by eliminating net income each year by making payments to shareholder-employees. Shareholders must report any dividend earnings as capital gains on their personal tax returns.

A corporation starts out as a C corporation for tax purposes. All corporations are automatically recognized as C corporations, unless the shareholder’s elect “S” corporation tax treatment, which is discussed below. The taxable income of the C corporations (after deductions for salary, business expenses and depreciation on furniture and equipment) is taxable to the corporation itself. The C corporation would only be taxed on income “effectively connected with the United States”, beginning at a corporate tax rate of 15% for the first $50,000 of corporate taxable income each year.

If the corporation is classified as a “personal service corporation”, (PSC), is will pay a 35% flat rate from dollar one of net profit. This is a generally undesirable entity type. PSCs are C corporations whose shareholders are engaged in the performance of personal services in the fields of accounting, actuarial science, architecture, consulting, engineering, health and veterinary services, law, and the performing arts. The lowest 15% tax rate is only available to a corporation rendering personal services if a person who is not employed by the corporation owns at least 6% of the issued stock of the corporation. Otherwise the top personal tax rate would apply to the taxable income from personal services in that corporation. A PSC is a C corporation by definition. Thus, a timely made S-election, as discussed below, would negate classification of your corporation as a PSC and avoid the 35% flat tax rate.

There are some unique tax advantages gained with the use of the C corporation. Some of the key advantages most beneficial to small businesses are the ability to deduct all of the premiums paid on health insurance for owners who are employed, along with their spouses and dependents. In addition, a C corporation may adopt a MERP (Medical, Dental and Drug Expense Reimbursement Plan) at any time during a fiscal year, which can be made effective retroactive to the beginning of the fiscal year and can purchase disability insurance for one or more of its executives or other employees. A C corporation can also deduct the premiums of disability insurance without the cost being taxable to the executive or employee. Finally, a C corporation can deduct contributions to qualified retirement plans.

In terms of ownership, shareholders own the corporation by virtue of owning stock (or shares) in the corporation. Corporations issue stock certificates to its shareholders to indicate ownership percentage in the corporation. C corporations are permitted to have different classes of stock, such as common and preferred stock, offering dissimilar distribution and voting rights among shareholders. Shares may be freely transferred or redeemed without affecting the corporation. Under Illinois law, as every other State, shareholders of corporations generally enjoy a complete liability shield from the acts or omissions of the corporation itself. The shareholders elect a board of directors, who then manage the business and affairs of the corporation. Illinois law requires that a President, Secretary and Treasurer be appointed as officers of the corporation, although sole-shareholder corporations are permitted.

The Bylaws of the corporation are its governing document. The bylaws govern the business and affairs of the corporation (both C and S corporations) and specify mattes such as the number and powers and duties of the board of directors, shareholder voting rights, dissolution of the corporation, annual and special meetings, and other rules of the corporation. Typically, the relationship governing the owners (shareholders) in a small or closely held corporation is governed by a stock purchase or stock restriction agreement or similar document. This instrument can provide for shareholder purchase and sale rights, restrictions on the sale or transfer of shares and corporation purchase rights, among other matters. In all jurisdictions, corporations must have a set of bylaws that govern the corporation, or the corporation will be subject to the default provisions set forth under state statute.

Keep in mind, the relationship between the owners (shareholders) of the corporation can also be governed by a separate instrument, such as a stock purchase or stock restriction agreement, shareholder’s agreement or similar document. This document generally controls share transfers and purchases of additional stock and company and/or shareholder stock purchase rights.

C corporations are best suited for active businesses with a likelihood to appreciate and strong potential to offer shares publicly. C corporations generally retain their earnings in the beginning stages of growth and do not distribute corporate earnings to shareholders in an effort to appreciate.

Health Care Plan Does Require Intense Research

One thing you must keep in your knowledge that at some point of time you are going to need health care insurance, so you better understand its rules and benefits right on time to avoid any loss later. This is very normal not to have come across the clauses of health insurance generally. These things are very subjective and revealed to a person when he takes interest. This is not some fairy tale to be heard around.

Being not a super human, you have already visited the chambers of different types of health specialists. There may be dentist, optician, complimentary therapist and physiotherapist in your general medical visit list. Have you ever tried to accumulate the medical expenses you made so far? Well, who else does so? Usually, no one. But truly speaking, you already have made some big chunk of medical expenses that you are unaware of. For instance, if you just leave your personal medical expense aside and pick up your family’s routine checkup expense then also, the total figure is going to shock you.

In such highly rushed life, a middle-class person does not bother calculating his medical expense everyday but shock he will receive when some unexpected will happen. With no such big money saved in bank account, covering a big medical expense turns a person’s life completely upside down. Looking at the bill of a private nursing home, one will surely get a jolt (if he does not hold any Florida health care plan).

These are some situations that make people realize how important it is to buy family health plan Illinois right on time. Paying low monthly premium and enjoying higher deductibles is way better than paying a heavy hospital bill with borrowed amount of money. There are certain health insurance policies that can help anyone out in such situations, but one has to be smart enough to detect the perfect and reliable Illinois health care service provider. There are many on the way to knock you to avail their highly comfortable health care policy but most of them turn out to be fake or case of forgeries. Being in need of health care insurance policy, you have to make some rigorous research on the companies and hospitals providing such services. Later on, you have to make sure –

• If they are holding a good reputation in the market or not.
• How much experience they have servicing in this industry?
• How wider their client base is?
• What are all the relevant feedback they have received so far?
• And, how comprehensive and comparatively better their policy is.

These are the few factors you have to make sure are going well with your budget and premium plan. Above and beyond, you better compare their premium and deductible plan with other reputed health care agency’s premium and deductible plans. On this date, experts also advise to go for comparison as one can avail many customization and flexibilities while buying a family health care plan. A little bit of carelessness may land anyone in great loss and covering that may become next to impossible. So, it is always advised to go for intense research before finalizing any health care plan provided by any health care agency.

For an easy process, Hospital Charges can be recommended to you as this agency has been into this industry for decades and have serviced a wide ranging client across the nation. They are reliable and highly recommended.

I am freelancer content writer and I have written many articles. Some of them are my most favorite topic like health insurance, family health insurance plan and more.